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Karl Lanckoroński – „The last humanist of the European aristocracy“

Joanna Winiewicz-Wolska

"What am I to the world? I was not a minister, not an artist, not a professor. Or perhaps I have been a little bit of all of these together. But what was I really? A dilettante, an amateur, nothing else... Maybe once a rich man in high social position, who loved the ancient poets and lived in art.... Is that something special?" This is how Karl Lanckoroński spoke about himself on his 80th birthday. [1]
"He was deeply rooted in the mentality of the 19th century, which provided him with a very extensive education thanks to his travels to faraway countries and the reading of numerous books. His unshakable memory was of great help. This memory, which today we would call by the word (unknown to my father) "digital" memory, as well as his insatiable need to continuously expand his knowledge, he preserved in excellent health until the end of his days - until the age of 85," [2] wrote his elder daughter Karolina about her father Karl Lanckoroński.
Karl Anton Leon Ludwig Lanckoroński-Brzezie was born on November 4, 1848. Fate intertwined him closely with the Habsburg monarchy - "this was the world in which he lived, which formed him and to which he belonged with all his heart" - recalled his daughter. When the independence efforts in 1918 led to the disintegration of the multinational Austro-Hungarian monarchy, his world disintegrated as well. Loyalty to the emperor, often perceived in Polish circles as excessive loyalty, as well as the feeling of close belonging to the circle of elite Viennese and international aristocracy were the reasons why he had difficulty finding his place in the new reality and gradually withdrew from public life. Karl Lanckoroński died on July 15, 1933, almost exactly at the time when Europe was facing German National Socialism. The Second World War finally destroyed Lanckoroński's life's work: a bomb destroyed his palace in Vienna, his famous art collection was scattered. People quickly forgot about that person who was one of the most famous and distinctive personalities at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1948, on the occasion of the 100th birthday of the Count, Paul Thun-Hohenstein wrote: "But even if only fifteen years have passed since his death, they were years full of difficult experiences and adventures for all of us, years that have left the past far behind with a deep caesura, so that even the mature generation knows little more to associate with this name than, for example, the memories of a beautiful, garden-lined house in the upper Jacquingasse, which a bomb destroyed."[3] The name of Thun-Hohenstein is still associated with the name of the Count.
However, "He was known to every child (...) His popularity extended from the imperial court to (...) the last one-horse driver in Vienna and to the last peasant in the wide vicinity of his Polish possessions."[4] He was "a welcome guest at courtly festivities, in social and artistic life," his "tall, powerful figure with its red beard" [5] always towered above the heads of those accompanying him. His almost monumental physique contrasted with his small head, which was visually enlarged by a luxuriant red beard. This beard gave his whole figure a patriarchal appearance. His face, with a high forehead, regular features and few wrinkles (even in later years), was marked by the lively inquiring look of his clear blue eyes. Lanckoroński differed not only "visually" but also "acoustically" from his surroundings [6] His voice, which was described as a "high tenor" [7] or, more mischievously, as shrill, stood out, as did his overall appearance, to which his voice was in unexpected surprising contrast. "I rarely visited Lanckoroński because I could not stand his shrill loud voice, his decisive sentences that did not bear contradiction, and his whims," Kazimierz Chłędowski confessed. [8] Hugo von Hofmannsthal remembered him as a person who "spoke continuously, of a thousand things, so rapidly and streaming that it was not at all possible to interject even one question. I am very glad to know him, am far from wanting to criticize him, but it is actually almost like a disease: I do not understand at all how he can take in impressions, and I think in vain about how he can then take in the joys and pains of existence, if he always has such a flight of thoughts and words in him." [9] "This is a good, noble man," Christiane Thun-Salm defended the Count, "and if his manner of speaking and his much knowledge are at times tiresome, it is nevertheless gratifying to meet a man who has a lively, real interest in all things spiritual, and such a sincere enthusiasm for the beautiful in art." [10]
Lanckoroński was a person of extraordinary intelligence, extensive knowledge, and encyclopedic memory, coupled with great sensitivity, nobility of soul, kindness of heart, and humor. However, from the memoirs also emerges the image of an arrogant, inaccessible and unrestrained man, prone to outbursts of unbridled anger. Mutually exclusive character traits such as impulsiveness and sensitivity, stubbornness and understanding, lust for power and devotion merged into a personality that was difficult to judge.
Lanckoroński was called a "grand seigneur of the old school" [11]. For the painter Wojciech Kossak he was "an exceptionally great man" [12]. Ludwig Curtius, professor of archaeology and director of the German Archaeological Institute in Rome, remembered him as follows: "One felt his inner goodness and the simplicity of his nature but since he looked and behaved like a Russian emperor, it was difficult to feed on him humanly." [13] Curtius had to concede, however, that this seemingly inaccessible "Russian emperor" could feel spontaneous, almost childlike enthusiasm for art.
Many anecdotes were told about him. While he aroused sympathy in some, he aroused aversion in others. Some he supported - not only financially, but also thanks to his authority - others he hindered in their career, which earned him the contemptuous designation "haughty patron" [14]. With admirable patience he tolerated the difficult character of Hans Makart. Commenting on the widely known foibles of Jacek Malczewski, he said, "que le talent c'est le commençement de la folie."[15] In the circle "looked after" by the count, many young people studied whom Lanckoroński, "climbing the scientific Parnassus, pulled behind him or rather pushed ahead of him" such as the young, gifted archaeologist Piotr Bieńkowski. [16]

Apprentice years

My father "was a highly educated man who gave me the most careful upbringing," Karl Lanckoroński recalled in 1928. His father Kazimierz (1802 - 1874), born in Vienna, came from an old Polish noble family whose roots went back to the 12th century. [17] Since the time of the Polish partitions, they lived in the capital of the Empire.
From 1857 to 1858, Karl attended the Michael von Zoller and Franz Aloys Bernard'sche secondary schools in Vienna. From 1859 to 1866 he attended the Schottengymnasium, where he received his Matura certificate on July 12, 1866. On December 13, 1866, he matriculated at the Law Faculty of the University of Vienna. In 1873 he graduated as a doctor of both laws.
His intellectual development was significantly influenced by the classical philologist Wilhelm von Hartel, who became young Charles's tutor in about 1864 [18], and Adolf Exner, an outstanding expert on Roman law. "To them I owe the best humanistic education" - Lanckoroński will say after years. [19]
"Ancestry, rare gifts, and education worked together in him to establish a versatility and refinement of education that few can boast of at the present time". [20] He was brought up in a family where "a sense of art and an appreciation of art are hereditary." [21] His father, a privy councillor and chamberlain associated with the imperial court, was a famous Viennese collector who upheld the family tradition of collecting art. It was he who took care of the development of his son's talents, so in 1858 he hired the painter Carl Leopold Müller as a drawing teacher. [22]
An undoubted influence on the interests of the young Charles, especially on his passion for theater, was also exerted by his paternal uncle, Karl Lanckoroński (1799-1863). The latter was chamberlain at the imperial court in Vienna from 1856 to 1863. He was an excellent connoisseur and lover of the theater, as well as the long-time Supreme Court Theater Director.
Complementing the young count's education were - as he himself recalled [23] - "the years of study" he spent in Paris and London. It is likely that Lanckoroński met the famous sculptor Auguste Rodin in Paris. The fact that they actually met is evidenced by a visiting card of the artist addressed to him, but unfortunately undated, with the note "Mes meilleurs souvenirs." [24] In London he possibly met Edward Burne-Jones.

Art travel and scientific expeditions

His interest in antiquity began very early, during his school years. The art and literature of ancient Greece and Rome shaped his aesthetic views and became a point of reference as well as a fixed criterion in the evaluation of all works of art. He met all attempts to criticize classical aesthetics with rejection. An important factor shaping his profile of interests was "wide travels, extending from the beloved Italian soil over all the cultural territory of the old and new world." They "strengthened his cosmopolitanism, secured the breadth of his artistic vision." [25] He always prepared carefully for them, often being accompanied by artists or art historians. "He felt good wherever [...] old Europe had its roots. From America he fled after a short stay. He did not know the nostalgia with which God had so generously gifted my generation" wrote Karolina Lanckorońska about her father. [26] The most frequent and important destination of his travels was Italy, "whose history and monuments he [...] mastered to such a high degree that he must be counted among the best connoisseurs of the country and its art," [27] the art and culture of Italy always being for him a yardstick for the achievements of other countries and civilizations. "To those who may take offense at the frequent comparisons, especially with regions and works of art in Italy, I would like to answer that Italy is also a yardstick (sic) and perhaps not the worst ...", the count wrote. [28] Certainly, it was in Italy that his interest in the painting of the Italian Cinquecento originated, the paintings of the so-called Italian "primitives" became in time one of the most important parts of his famous collection.
In 1874 he made a trip to Greece [29], in the same year he spent a month in Italy, in the spring of 1875 he made another trip to Italy. After his return, he traveled to Spain together with Hans Makart. At the end of 1874 he traveled to Egypt, again accompanied by Makart. In Cairo he met the architects and painters Eduard Kaiser, Adolf Gnauth, Rudolf Huber, Franz von Lenbach and Leopold Carl Müller. [30] His next art trip took him to Palestine and Syria; in 1877 he visited Beirut and Damascus, among other places. [31]
In 1882 he initiated systematic archaeological research in what is now southwestern Turkey along the Mediterranean coast. He participated in the archaeological expedition to Lycia led by Otto Benndorf. He also supported this expedition financially. In the fall of 1882, he again traveled to Asia Minor, accompanied by the anthropologist and ethnographer Felix Luschan and the painter Leopold Bar, among others. In October he was in Adalia (Antalya), where he stayed longer, from there he made short trips to Pamphylia. In the first weeks of March 1883 he visited Cilicia and returned to Vienna with the plan "to return as soon as possible at the head of a scientific expedition which should have for its purpose the recording and description of the classical Pamphylian ruined sites and those located in the Pisidian mountains surrounding them." [32]   
In March 1884, he made a two-week trip to southern France, where he visited the remains of Roman civilization in Avignon, Orange, Arles, and Nîmes. There he also met the architect Henri Revoil, whose work included the restoration of ancient monuments. However, he devoted all his strength and resources to the organization of a larger research expedition. He realized this project in the autumn of 1884. Felix Luschan, Professor Marian Sokołowski, George Niemann, Eugen Petersen, Wilhelm von Hartel and the architect and photographer Moritz Hartel took part in the expedition from September to December 1884. The painter Jacek Malczewski became the chronicler of the expedition. [33] The Greek landscape painter Angelos Giallina also took part in the first stage, whom Lanckoroński engaged already on site "to record the views" [34]. The travel diary was kept by Marian Sokołowski [35], Karl Lanckoroński also recorded his impressions in writing. [36] The expedition members undertook the inventory of the ancient monuments in Aspendos, Adalia, Sagalassos, Termessos, Side, Perge, Selge i Pandelissos, and the work was to be the beginning of further more extensive research.
In November, Eugen Petersen, Felix Luschan and Wilhelm von Hartel set out from Sagalassos on their return journey. Lanckoroński, Malczewski and Sokołowski, on the other hand, left for Konya. The work started was continued during the following expedition, also financed by Karl Lanckoroński, which was started in September 1885 [37]. The count did not take part in it, the leadership was taken over by Eugen Petersen and George Niemann.
The research results obtained in Pamphylia and Pisidia were published in a great publication of fundamental importance for future generations of researchers of this region. The work appeared under the title Cities of Pamphylia and Pisidia and was edited and financed by Karl Lanckoroński. [38] The name of Lanckoroński has since been generally associated with the achievements of German and Austrian archaeology in Anatolia, and the success of his archaeological expeditions opened the way for him to the scientific Parnassus. He became a member of the German and Austrian Archaeological Institutes, in 1891 he was elected a member of the Polish Academy of Sciences and Arts (PAU) in Cracow [39], and in 1893, "because of his outstanding services to the history of antiquity and to the honor of our native studies" [40] - a corresponding member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna. On March 25, 1907, he was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Jagiellonian University in Cracow. [41] This title was also awarded to him by the University in Berlin. [42] His fame as a researcher and connoisseur of antiquity was also consolidated by the work he financed on the restoration of the cathedral in Aquileia, which was carried out by George Niemann and Heinrich Swoboda. Their crowning achievement was another remarkable publication, Der Dom zu Aquileia, published in 1906. "Thus, in these two great works, he has set himself an enduring scholarly monument." [43]
Another art trip took the count to North Africa. In 1887 he visited the ancient Roman cities of Biskra, Batina, Constantine, Hippo and met the French archaeologist and famous Carthage researcher Alfred Louis Delâttre. In June 1887 Lanckoroński went to England, Denmark and Sweden via Dresden and Hamburg. He visited Glasgow, Copenhagen, Malmö, and Lund, among other places. [44] His great journey around the world was not based on any concrete research intentions, it was rather of an epistemological character. In December 1888, the count set out from Marseille for Colombo. In August 1889, he arrived by ship in Southampton, from where he returned to Vienna via London. The route led from Ceylon to the interior of India, to the Afghan border, along the Himalayas to Calcutta and Darjeeling, and on to Singapore, Hong Kong, China and Japan. On June 24, 1889, he boarded a ship in Yokohama for San Francisco and within a month traveled by rail from west to east across the United States.
His travels provided Lanckoroński with the opportunity to expand his collections. "The artistic trophies" of his expeditions to Asia Minor he exhibited in the Austrian Museum of Art and Industry in 1885. The antiquities as well as handicraft objects of the time, which he had acquired during the world trip, were presented in the exhibition of the Vienna Museum of Commerce in 1890. [45]
The world trip was his last long journey, but he never renounced shorter expeditions. In 1891 he was in Corfu and Albania together with the sculptor Caspar Zumbusch. [46] In the summer of 1912 he traveled with his son via Berlin and Hamburg to Glasgow, Edinburgh, then Iceland. [47] In May 1929 he left for Spain and Portugal, on this trip he was accompanied by his daughter Karolina. For his trip to South America, which he already planned at the age of over 80 years, however, his strength was no longer sufficient. It was not even granted to him to start this journey.

Among scholars and artists

Hans Tietze called Lanckoroński an "art count". [48] The count enjoyed high esteem not only among archaeologists but also among art historians, although he was more of an art connoisseur than a scholar with the research methods and working methods characteristic of the respective subject. His extensive correspondence includes names such as Wilhelm von Bode, Cornelius Gurlitt, Gustav Glück, André Hallays, Henri Michel, and Hans Tietze. Evidence of the long-standing contact with Max Dvořák are the 218 letters that this Viennese scholar wrote to the count. He provided advice and assistance to the Kraków researchers and discussed various artistic initiatives with the experts from Galicia and Kraków. Marian Sokołowski asked him to transmit the statutes of the imperial museums, which were to serve as a model for the National Museum in Kraków. [49] Lanckoroński also became an advisor regarding the newly emerging institution [50] and participated in the discussions about the location of the Adam Mickiewicz monument in Kraków. In 1889 he decided on the selection of Polish works of art for the exhibition in the Vienna Künstlerhaus. He was the donor and creator of the design for the tomb of Queen Hedwig, which was executed in Rome by Antoni Madeyski in 1901-1902. [51] For the Wawel Cathedral he also donated a tomb slab for Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki, made by Caspar Zumbusch. Lanckoroński financed the plaster casts of the most important ancient and Renaissance sculptures taken in Berlin and Paris in 1881-1906, which formed the starting point for the library and collections of the Jagiellonian University's Cabinet of Art History, founded in 1884. Marian Sokołowski proposed to exhibit them in the halls and in the arcaded courtyard of the Collegium Iuridicum in Grodzka Street and already imagined the inscription "Museum Lanckoronnum" with the motto of the Lanckoroński family "Flammans pro recto" [52] under the university coat of arms at the main entrance of the building. The sculpture ensemble, which should have been the basis of the museum, was seen by the public in 1907 on the occasion of the exhibition in the halls of the Society of Friends of Fine Arts in Cracow. [53]
Among the professors of the Jagiellonian University, Lanckoroński knew not only Marian Sokołowski. He also had contacts with Jerzy Mycielski and other Italophiles. He invited Julian Klaczko to Rozdół and also met with him in Italy.
Lanckoroński was the initiator of the Society Evenings of Austrian Friends of Art, [54] whose aim was "to provide an opportunity for art researchers, lovers and collectors, as well as all persons interested in the art of past epochs from their beginnings to the half of the 19th century, to meet and exchange ideas." This association organized, among other things, lectures. Among the speakers, Karl Lanckoroński can be found more often. In December 1900, he showed photographs of old Viennese houses [55], which had certainly been taken by August Stauda. This was connected with the large-scale initiative against the destruction of old houses, which, as in other European metropolises, were to make way for new traffic arteries and buildings (see, among others, the articles published by Lanckoroński in Zur Rettung Alt-Wiens [56]). On February 12, 1901 he gave a lecture on Japanese painting [57], on March 12, 1903 on Indian sculpture [58], on March 20, 1905 on Italian cassoni. [59] On February 20, 1906, together with Heinrich Swoboda, he presented the publication Der Dom zu Aquileia. On March 30, 1908, he presented Some Minor Dutch Paintings and Those of Related Origin. He illustrated his lectures with the help of selected works of art from his private collections.
Karl Lanckoroński maintained relations with artists, his friendship with Caspar Zumbusch and Jacek Malczewski has been written about. He supported them financially, sponsored them and bought their works of art. He knew Arnold Böcklin. [60] In the studio of Hans Makart, "he experienced many beautiful moments." [61] He certainly participated in his famous historical performances. In 1876, both took part in the famous premiere of Wagner's tetralogy Der Ring des Nibelungen, which opened the Bayreuth Festival.
Lanckoroński also frequently visited the painter and professor at the Academy of Fine Arts Kazimierz Pochwalski in his house in Vienna. [62] He knew Henryk Rodakowski, who often stayed at the Lanckoroński family estate in Rozdół, where they both looked at photographs from the famous photo library and had long conversations about art. [63] Listening to the conversations was Jacek Malczewski, who at the same time made sketches of them. Lanckoroński's friendship with Malczewski is documented by 200 drawings and a good dozen of oil paintings made during the painter's visits to Rozdół or commissioned by the count.
Lanckoroński also knew many literary figures; he had contacts with Hugo von Hofmannsthal, who gave a lecture at the Lanckoroński Palace in Jacquingasse in May 1902. [64] He also knew Rainer Maria Rilke, to whom he once gave his poems. The latter is said to have commented positively on them. He dedicated one of his works to the count. The motto of this poem was the first line of a poem by Lanckoroński: Nicht Geist, nicht Inbrunnst. [65] The Count was also friends with the Austrian poet Max Mell and corresponded with Max Kalbeck. He probably also met Maurice Maeterlinck, assuming that a meeting of the two actually took place, which Hugo von Hofmannsthal should have arranged in 1903. [66] Lanckoroński himself wrote poetry frequently. Undoubtedly, these were poems that were read only among close acquaintances and were not intended for publication. [67] Short comments in verse form can be found on the back of photographs he sent to his friends. Among his favorite poets was Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, whose poems the count could recite from memory. Lanckoroński was also one of the first members of the Goethe Society in Vienna, founded in 1878.

In the service of the monarchy

In 1874, after the death of his father, Karl Lanckoroński inherited his seat in the Austrian manor. Like his father, he held the office of a Privy Councillor. On December 24, 1878, he was appointed chamberlain, and in 1914, colonel chamberlain. [68] This title was conferred on him by the Emperor not only in consideration of family tradition and family influences (his uncle Karl was Oberstkämmerer), but also, or above all, in recognition of his activities and merits.
With great energy Lanckoroński planned far-reaching changes. He wanted to reduce the number of civil servants and increase their salaries; he propagated the decentralization of the imperial collections and the construction of a separate building for the collection of antiquities, as well as the transfer of the imperial picture gallery to the floors of the Upper Belvedere, with the halls of the Lower Belvedere designated for the secondary gallery. However, he was able to push through few reforms. "There I could do almost nothing" - he recalled - "Emperor Franz Josef I was already an old man (..). He was hardly open to new ideas. Then the world war broke out soon, and then we all together probably had other worries." [69]
Karl Lanckoroński was a member of the Board of Trustees of the Imperial and Royal Austrian Museum of Commerce and the Imperial and Royal Austrian Museum of Art and Industry. He was a member of the Art Commission convened in 1863 in the Ministry of Culture and Education (his name is first mentioned in the composition of this commission in 1902). [70] In 1898, the second advisory committee - the Art Council - was established in this Ministry, among whose members Lanckoroński's name can be found (mentioned for the first time in 1900). [71]
The count actively promoted the establishment of state Austrian organizations for the protection of monuments. This was the concept of Alois Riegl, which was successfully continued by Max Dvořák. Lanckoroński was vice-president of the Central Commission for Research and Preservation of Artistic and Historical Monuments. Within the internal structures of the Central Commission, he was a member of the Section for Medieval and Modern Monuments (together with Heinrich Swoboda, Caspar Zumbusch, Max Dvořak and Stanisław Tomkowicz), the Restoration Committee, the Committee for Homeland Protection and Art Issues, the Publication Committee and the Committee for Monument Preservation. Thanks to his initiative, a branch of the Central Commission was established in Kraków, which was headed from May 1, 1914 by Tadeusz Szydłowski, Provincial Conservator for Western Galicia. [72]
On December 16, 1908, Lanckoroński was elected chairman of the Association for the Protection and Preservation of the Art Monuments of Vienna and Lower Austria. [73] He was an undisputed authority in the field of monument protection. "No question of public interest in art has been negotiated in Austria and especially in Vienna in recent decades in which he has not raised his voice loudly and forcefully; all matters of building and monument preservation he has not only dealt with as vice-president of the Central Commission, but has made his own cause in a passionate manner." [74] In 1901, he advocated the protection of the west portal of St. Stephen's Cathedral, the so-called Giant's Gate, [75] whose "presumed ancient Romanesque form" [76] should be restored. He also pleaded for the integrity of Karlsplatz in Vienna and objected to the construction of the Emperor Franz Joseph City Museum. According to experts, this building would change the spatial structure of the square, which was dominated by the Karlskirche. This issue, which had been discussed since 1899, caused controversy not only in the circles of Viennese preservationists. The winners of the planning competition for the construction of the new museum were two candidates - Otto Wagner, who propagated innovative solutions in the spirit of emerging modernism, and Friedrich Schachner, the architect of historicism, who preferred the forms of the Viennese Baroque. The debate, initially conducted in the circle of experts, became more widely known through the press and leaflets. It came to a head in the fall and winter of 1907 when, after Schachner's death, the implementation of Wagner's design was considered. There were vehement protests. The Künstlerhaus, the Central Commission for Research and Preservation of Artistic and Historical Monuments, and the Association for the Protection and Preservation of Artistic Monuments of Vienna and Lower Austria objected. When talks with Wagner were initiated, Karl Lanckoroński, Prince Franz von und zu Liechtenstein, Count Hans Wilczek as well as Count Friedrich Schönborn addressed a petition to the mayor of Vienna. They asked him to refrain from erecting the museum at this location, because this would be "a grave sin against the spirit of the building and against the artistic reputation of the city of Vienna" [77]. The petition was signed in a short time by 6000 people and presented to the mayor by Lanckoroński, Wilczek and Paul Schoeller on December 17, 1907. [78] With his disapproval of the construction of the museum in a modern architectural form, Lanckoroński did not protest in principle against building on the square. He called for the construction of a building for the Kunsthistorisches Museum's collection of antiquities on the model of the Glyptothek, located on Munich's Königsplatz. [79]
Lanckoroński actively participated in the debate about the future appearance of the royal castle on Wawel, which had been requisitioned by the Austrian army. [80] Since the 1880s, attempts were made to persuade the imperial court in Vienna to return the former Polish royal seat to the Polish people. Karl Lanckoroński called the stationing of Austrian troops in the Kraków royal palace a "cultural disgrace" [81] on the occasion of a meeting of the Imperial Council. Together with Friedrich Ohmann, he discussed the project of reconstruction of the Wawel, designed by Kraków architect Zygmunt Hendel. He was one of the four nominated members [82] of the national committee, the so-called Wawel Committee, which was responsible for appraisal and supervision and had extensive decision-making authority regarding the artistic design of the castle. His views and conceptions, which coincided with the demands of the Viennese preservationists for the preservation of a building with all its overlapping of styles, provoked the opposition of the Krakow conservators. During a lecture given at the Jagiellonian University, he said of the seat of the Polish kings, "More than ever, respect is needed for everything that has survived the ages and been preserved from past eras, with the exception of overly utilitarian and tasteless additions when a building served secondary purposes." [83] Lanckoroński was a supporter of the idea of historical restoration, which he understood much more radically than Stanisław Tomkiewicz. The art historian laid down rules in this regard in 1901 and defined the criterion of "artistic feature." He was critical of far-reaching reconstructions.
In the pamphlet "Some New Works in the Wawel Cathedral" [84] he criticized contemporary works of art in the Wawel Cathedral, the canopy over the tomb of Władysław I Ellenlang and the wall paintings by Józef Mehoffer in the cathedral treasury as well as those by Włodzimierz Tetmajer in the Queen Sophie Chapel. He reproached the artists for "not being able to tune their souls to the serious atmosphere of these walls" [85] and for misinterpreting the principle of appropriateness, according to which beauty and harmony result from the practicality of a work of art. The intense colors as well as the decorations in modern painting disturbed him in the walls of the former building and To the monumentality of the cathedral he considered appropriate his own endowments, the tomb of Queen Hedwig erected on the pattern of Italian Renaissance sculpture by Antoni Madeyski and the pseudo-medieval tomb slab of Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki executed in the spirit of historicism by Caspar Zumbusch. This attitude of his was the cause of the conflict with Józef Mehoffer, who reacted to the count's accusations in his polemical text published in Ver Sacrum. He feared that the voice of the "foreigner" enjoying a high reputation would not only be decisive for the restoration of the cathedral, but would contribute to the formation of a strange canon and hinder the spontaneity of artistic creation. [86]
After Lanckoroński's intervention, the work in the Wawel Cathedral was stopped by Bishop Jan Puzyna. [87] Between April and May 1903, the order for stained glass windows for the cathedral in Płock, which the artist was commissioned to do after winning the tender in December, was withdrawn. [88]

Poles about Lanckoroński

Among the positive judgments about the count, those that emphasize his merits in promoting Polish culture and the exceptional efficiency of his activities predominate. Thanks to his efforts and financial support, Siegfried Lipiner translated into German two works by Adam Mickiewcz, Pan Tadeusz [Mr. Thaddeus]) and Dziady [Funeral]. [96] The latter became the source of inspiration for the 1st movement of Gustav Mahler's 2nd Symphony in C minor, completed in 1894. [97]
Lanckoroński was chairman of the committee of the International Exhibition of Musical and Theatrical Arts, which opened on May 7, 1892, and was involved in the preparation of the Polish part of the exhibition. Together with Władysław Lubomirski [98] he took over the patronage of the performance of the young Polish pianist Artur Rubinstein, who gave a concert in the Bösendorfer Hall in 1910. This concert was also attended, among others, by the young Ferdinand Goetel, the later writer and publicist. He had received invitations for himself and his friends from Karl Lanckoroński. [99] The count took part in the preparation of the two exhibitions of Polish art that opened on April 11, 1915, in the Künstlerhaus and in 1928 in the Vienna Secession. [100] He also endeavored to get the drama Tamten [The Other] by Gabriela Zapolska staged in Vienna. The play was staged in Kraków in 1898 and adapted for a German-language stage version by Bernard Scharlitt. [101]
During World War I, he "hosted the Polish colony in his Viennese palace, uniting separated people and sharing with them the concern for the uncertain future of their homeland." [102] It was also here that one of the first meetings of the Regency Council, which was a substitute for the Polish government in the Kingdom of Poland, took place. [103]
Lanckoroński, who admired the multiethnic Danube Monarchy, considered Poland an autonomous part of "the Austro-Hungarian-Polish Empire." "He could hardly get over the death of the emperor and the end of those hopes," his daughter recalled years later. However, it was with great joy that he welcomed the independent Polish state. [104]
Although Poland regained its independence, Karl Lanckoroński remained in Vienna. He also did not plan, as he was advised, to transfer his art collections to Poland. "He was aware that at his advanced age he should have taken an active part in the political life of young Poland. For this he lacked experience and knowledge of the Russian partition area, therefore he decided to complete his life in the old house," [105] wrote Ferdinand Goetel, who saw the count for the last time in 1925.
Karl Lanckoroński, "the last humanist of the European aristocracy" [106] said about himself at the end of his life: "I am a Pole (...) I have suggested various things in the artistic and cultural sphere in the new Poland, which were carried out, and I am happy that as an old man I could still create something for the new Poland." [107]

Translation: Paulina Górak

[1] Artur Ernst, Beim Grafen Lanckoronski, „Neues Wiener Tagblatt“ 195, Wien, 17. Juli  1933,  S. 2.
[2] Karolina Lanckorońska, Energiczna pedagogia [Die energische Pädagogie],   „Dziennik Polski“ 249, London, 18. Oktober 1989, S. 4.
[3] Paul Thun-Hohenstein, Der alte Lanckoroński, „Die Presse“, Wien, 4. November 1948, S. 14.
[4] Julius Twardowski, Lanckoroński. Vortrag gehalten im Verein der Museumsfreunde zu Wien am 26. November 1934, Wien [1934], S. 3.
[5] Magnat polski wielkim dygnitarzem dworskim w Wiedniu [Ein polnischer Magnat als hoher Würdenträger am Hof in Wien], „Świat” 10, 7. März 1914.
[6] Twardowski, Lanckoroński, S. 3.
[7] A.F.S. [Adalbert Franz Seligmann], Graf Karl Lanckoroński. Ein Nachruf, „Neue Freie Presse” 24729, 18. Juli 1933, S. 1.
[8] Kazimierz Chłędowski, Dzienniki [Tagebücher], Bd. 1-2, Kraków 1957, S. 176.
[9] Brief aus Rodaun, vom 23. Juli 1901; Hugo von Hofmannsthal / Christiane Gräfin Thun-Salm. Briefwechsel. Mit Briefen Hofmannsthals an Paul Thun-Hohenstein, Frankfurt/M 1999, S. 11; Konrad Heumann, Hugo von Hofmannsthal und Karl Lanckoroński. Briefe und Zeugnisse in: Hofmannsthal-Jahrbuch zur europäischen Moderne 12, 2004, S. 223.
[10] Brief aus Prag vom 29. Juni 1901; Hugo von Hofmannsthal / Christiane Gräfin Thun-Salm, S. 9; Heumann, Hugo von Hofmannsthal und Karl Lanckoroński, S. 221.
[11] Graf Karl Lanckoroński, „Internationale Sammler-Zeitung“, 25/1415, 1. August 1933.
[12] Wojciech Kossak, Wspomnienia [Erinnerungen], bearb. von Kazimierz Olszański, Warszawa 1974, S. 363.
[13] Ludwig Curtius, Deutsche und antike Welt. Lebenserinnerungen, Stuttgart 1950, S. 292.
[14] T. Rutowski über Lanckorońskis Kritik an den Werken von Wacław Szymanowski, zit. nach Hans Bisanz, Polscy artyści w wiedeńskich stowarzyszeniach [Polnische Künstler in Wiener Vereinen], Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego 455, Prace Polonijne 2, 1976, S. 48.
[15] Kossak, Wspomnienia, S. 363.
[16] Aus den Erinnerungen des Enkels von Piotr Bieńkowski, zit. nach Ryszard Zieliński, Gry majowe. Pamiętnik spóźnionego [Maispiele. Tagebuch eines Verspäteten], Warszawa 1983, S. 116-118.
[17] Stanisław Cynarski, Dzieje rodu Lanckorońskich z Brzezia: od XIV do XVIII wieku [Die Geschichte der Familie Lanckoroński aus Brzezie: vom 14. bis zum 18. Jahrhundert], Warszawa - Kraków 1996; Rody magnackie Rzeczypospolitej [Magnatengeschlechter in Polen-Litauen], Warszawa 2009, S. 82-96.
[18 ] Datum des ersten von ca. 1000 Briefe von Wilhelm von Hartel an Karl Lanckoroński; Wien, ÖNB, Autogr. 618/1-17, 619/1-12, 620/1-9.
[19] Ernst, Beim Grafen Lanckoronski, S. 2.
[20] Max Dvořak, Vorwort, in: Ausgewählte Kunstwerke der Sammlung Lanckoroński, Wien 1918, S. 2
[21] Nora Fugger, Im Glanz der Kaiserzeit, Wien 1931, S. 226.
[22] Adalbert Franz Seligmann (Hg.), Carl Leopold Müller. Ein Künstlerleben in Briefen, Bildern und Dokumenten, Wien 1922, S. 51, Anmerkung Nr. 49.
[23] Ernst, Beim Grafen Lanckoronski, S. 3.
[24] Wien, ÖNB, Autogr. 616/23-1.
[25] Hans Tietze, Karl Graf Lanckoroński, „Kunstchronik und Kunstmarkt“ 54/6, 22. November 1918, S. 113.
[26] Karolina Lanckorońska, Pan Jacek [Herr Jacek] in: Karolina Lanckorońska, Szkice wspomnień [Erinnerungsskizzen], Warszawa 2005, S. 36-43.
[27] Dvořák, Vorwort , S. 4.
[28] Karl Lanckoroński, Rund um die Erde 1888-1889. Geschautes und Gedachtes, Stuttgart 1891, S. 8.
[29] Wien, ÖNB, Cod. Ser. n. 14788.
[30] Joachim Śliwa, Karol Lanckoroński w Egipcie, 1875/1876 [Karl Lanckoroński in Ägypten, 1875/1876] in: Badacze, kolekcjonerzy, podróżnicy. Studia z dziejów zainteresowań starożytniczych [Forscher, Sammler, Reisende. Studien zur Geschichte des Interesses an der Antike], Kraków 2012, S. 227-244.
[31] Karl Lanckoroński, Ein Ritt durch Kilikien. Zuerst veröffentlicht in der Beilage der Münchner Allgemeinen Zeitung 20. bis 23. April 1886, Wien b. d, S. 5-6.
[32] Städte Pamphyliens und Pisidiens. Unter Mitwirkung von George Niemann und Eugen Petersen, herausgegeben von Karl Grafen Lanckoroński, Bd. I: Pamphylien, Prag - Wien - Leipzig 1890, S. 1-2.
[33] Tadeusz Szydłowski, Malczewskis Illustrationen zu der Kleinasiatischen Expedition des Jahres 1884 in: Ausgewählte Kunstwerke, S. 117-119; Tadeusz Szydłowski, Wyprawa archeologiczna do Azji Mniejszej w r. 1884 ilustrowana przez Jacka Malczewskiego [Die archäologische Expedition nach Kleinasien im Jahre 1884, illustriert von Jacek Malczewski], „Kurier Literacko-Ilustrowany” (Beilage zu  „Ilustrowany Kurier Codzienny”) 24/163, 1931, S. 3-4; Mieczysław Paszkiewicz, Jacek Malczewski w Azji Mniejszej i Rozdole [Jacek Malczewski in Kleinasien und in Rozdół], Londyn 1972 (auch in englischer Sprache: Jacek Malczewski in Asia Minor and in Rozdół, London 1972); Artysta i jego Mecenas. Nieznane rysunki Jacka Malczewskiego ze zbiorów Lanckorońskich [Der Künstler und sein Mäzen. Unbekannte Aufzeichnungen von Jacek Malczewski aus den Sammlungen von Familie Lanckoroński], Kraków 1995; Teresa Grzybkowska Mitologia Malczewskiego [Die Mythologie von Malczewski]. Katalog, Warszawa 1995; Joanna Winiewicz-Wolska, Karol Lanckoroński i jego córka w rysunkach Malczewskiego [Karl Lanckoroński und seine Tochter auf den Skizzen von Malczewski] in: Donatorce - w hołdzie. Katalog wystawy odnowionych obrazów i rodzinnych pamiątek z daru Karoliny Lanckorońskiej / To the Donor in Hommage. Catalogue of Restored Paintings and Family Mementoes from Karolina Lanckorońska’s Donation, Kraków 1998, S. 28-35, 132-179; Antoni Sarkady, Kilka uwag o anatolijskich rysunkach Jacka Malczewskiego z daru Karoliny Lanckorońskiej [Einige Bemerkungen über die anatolische Zeichnungen von Jacek Malczewski, die von Karolina Lanckorońska geschenkt wurden], in: Galicja. Pismo Kulturalno-Naukowe 1, 2000, S. 55-61; Orientalizm w malarstwie, rysunku i grafice w Polsce w XIX i 1. połowie XX wieku. Katalog [Orientalismus in der polnischen Malerei, Zeichnung und Graphik im 19. und in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts. Ausstellungskatalog], Warszawa 2008, Pos. 267-271.
[34] Marian Sokołowski, Z dziennika podróży. Adriatyk, Archipelag i wyspa Rodos (dokończenie) [Aus dem Reisetagebuch. Adria, Archipel und die Insel Rhodos. Vollendung] in: Przegląd Polski 20, 1886, Bd. III, S. 269.
[35] Sokołowski, Aus dem Reisetagebuch, Przegląd Polski 19, 1885, Bd. IV, S. 418-447.
[36] Das Tagebuch beginnt am 30. August und endet am 4. Dezember 1884; Wien, ÖNB, Cod. Ser. n. 14773-14775.
[37]  Listy z Wiednia. Polska wyprawa do Małej Azji [Briefe aus Wien. Polnische Expedition nach Kleinasien], „Tygodnik Ilustrowany” 40, 5. September 1885, S. 156.
[38] Städte Pamphyliens und Pisidiens. Bd. I: Pamphylien, Prag - Wien - Leipzig 1890, Bd. II: Pisidien, Wien 1892 (polnische Ausgabe: Miasta Pamfilii i Pizydii, Bd. 1 übersetzt von Marian Sokołowski, Kraków 1890, Bd. 2 übersetzt von Marian Ćwikliński und Piotr Bieńkowski, Kraków 1896; französische Ausgabe: Les Villes de la Pamphylie et de la Pisidie, Vol. 1, Paris 1890, Vol. 2, Paris 1893).
[39] Rocznik Akademii Umiejętności w Krakowie, 1891/1892, S. 37. Brief von Marian Sokołowski an Karl Lanckoroński, 27. September 1890: Archiwum Nauki PAN i PAU w Krakowie, Spuścizna Karoliny Lanckorońskiej (Nachlass von Karolina Lanckorońska), Korespondencja Mariana Sokołowskiego (Korrespondenz von Marian Sokołowski), Sign. k-III-150.
[40] Camillo Praschniker, Karl Graf Lanckoroński, Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Almanach für das Jahr 1934, Jg. 84, Wien 1935, S. 291-292.
[41] Małgorzata Biernacka-Lubańska, Eskpedycja Karola Lanckorońskiego do Azji Mniejszej [Die Expedition von Karl Lanckoroński nach Kleinasien] in: „Meander” 41, 1986, S. 103.
[42] Andrzej Śródka, Uczeni polscy XIX-XX stulecia [Polnische Gelehrte des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts], Bd. 2, Warszawa 1995, S. 456-457.
[43] Praschniker, Karl Graf Lanckoroński, S. 293.
[44] Das Manuskript umfasst den Zeitraum vom 16. bis zum 23. Juni 1887; Wien, ÖNB, Cod. Ser. n. 15182.
[45] Jacob von Falke, Die Kunstgegenstände und Alterthümer des Grafen Karl Lanckoroński im Österreichischen Museum in Wien, „Wiener Zeitung“140, 21. Juni 1885, S. 3-5; Katalog der Ostasiatischen Sammlungen des Grafen Carl Lanckoroński. Ausgestellt im k. k. Österreichischen Handels- Museum (Börsegebäude), Wien 1890.
[46] Brief von Marian Sokołowski an Karl Lanckoroński, 14. Dezember 1891: Archiwum Nauki PAN i PAU w Krakowie, Spuścizna Karoliny Lanckorońskiej, Korespondencja Mariana Sokołowskiego.
[47] Das Reisetagebuch in: Wien, ÖNB, Cod. Ser. n. 35801.
[48] Tietze, Karl Graf Lanckoroński, S. 113.
[49] Brief von Marian Sokołowski an Karl Lanckoroński, 23. November 1879: Archiwum Nauki PAN i PAU w Krakowie, Spuścizna Karoliny Lanckorońskiej, Korespondencja Mariana Sokołowskiego.
[50] Brief von Marian Sokołowski an Karl Lanckoroński, 3. Dezember 1879: Archiwum Nauki PAN i PAU w Krakowie, Spuścizna Karoliny Lanckorońskiej, Korespondencja Mariana Sokołowskiego.
[51] Angela Sołtys, Pomniki Antoniego Madeyskiego na tle problemu restauracji katedry krakowskiej [Die Denkmäler von Antoni Madeyski angesichts der Frage der Restauration von Wawelkahedrale], in: Studia Waweliana 3, 1994, S. 157.
[52] Brief von Marian Sokołowski an Karl Lanckoroński, Kraków, 15. Juli 1888: Archiwum Nauki PAN i PAU w Krakowie, Spuścizna Karoliny Lanckorońskiej, Korespondencja Mariana Sokołowskiego.
[53]  Katalog wystawy rzeźby włoskiej z XV wieku i innych dzieł rzeźbiarskich z fundacji J. Exc. Hr. Karola Lanckorońskiego dla Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego [Katalog zur Ausstellung italienischer Skulpturen aus dem 15. Jahrhundert sowie weiterer Skulpturen, die Karl Lanckoroński der Jagiellonen Universität geschenkt hat], Kraków 1907.
[54] Sie wurden am 23. Mai 1900 auf der Burg Kreuzenstein des Grafen Hans Wilczek von folgenden Aristokraten ins Leben gerufen: Fürst Franz von und zu Liechtenstein, Graf Hugo Traun, Graf Arthur Bylandt, Graf Friedrich Schönborn, Graf Paul Gautsch und Wilhelm Graf von Weckbecker. Fürst Johann II von und zu Liechtenstein wurde zum Ehrenvorsitzenden gewählt.
[55] Der Vortrag wurde am 16. Dezember 1900 gehalten; Gesellschaftsabende österreichischer Kunstfreunde 1900-1916, Wien o.J., Bd. 1.
[56] Zur Rettung Alt-Wiens (=Flugschriften des Vereins zum Schutze und zur Erhaltung des Kunstdenkmäler Wiens und Niederösterreichs 2), Wien – Leipzig 1910.
[57] Karl Lanckoroński, Etwas von japanischer Malerei. Vortrag gehalten am dritten Gesellschaftsabend Österreichischer Kunstfreunde 12. Februar 1901 von Karl Grafen Lanckoroński, Wien [1901].
[58] Über einige indische Skulpturen in: Gesellschaftsabende, Bd. 1.
[59] Karl Lanckoroński, Einiges über italienische bemalte Truhen. Vortrag gehalten am 7. Gesellschaftsabend des Winters 1904-1905, 20. März von Karl Grafen Lanckoroński, Wien 1905.
[60] Über den Besuch in seinem Atelier in Florenz erzählte er Arthur Ernst im Jahre 1928, siehe Ernst, Beim Grafen Lanckoronski, S. 3.
[61] S. Krzywoszewski, Pałac wiedeński i zbiory Karola hr. Lanckorońskiego [Das Wiener Palais und die Kunstsammlungen von Karl Graf Lanckoroński], „Życie i Sztuka” 6 (Beilage zu „Kraj“), 7. Februar 1903, S. 1-3; 7, 14. Februar 1903, S. 2; Roman Taborski, Polacy w Wiedniu [Die Polen in Wien], Wrocław – Warszawa – Kraków – Gdańsk 1992, S. 121.
[62] Alfred Wysocki, Sprzed pół wieku [Vor einem halben Jahrhundert], Kraków 1956, S. 249-250; Taborski, Polacy, S. 133.
[63] Über die Fotothek aus Rozdół, K. Niedobitowski, Rozdół. Gniazdo magnackich rodów [Rozdół. Heimat von Magnatenfamilien], „Światowid” 10, 5 März 1938.
[64] Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Ansprache, gehalten von Hugo von Hofmannsthal am Abend des 10. Mai 1902 im Hause des Grafen Karl Lanckoroński. Als Manuskript gedruckt, Wien 1902, Nachdruck in: Konrad Heumann, Ellen Ritter (Hg.), Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Sämtliche Werke, XXXIII: Reden und Aufsätze 2, Frankfurt/M 2009, S. 7-11; in der polnischen Sprache: P. Hertz, [Hugo von Hofmannsthal] U wrót nieskończonego królestwa. Przemówienie wygłoszone wieczorem 10 maja 1902 roku w domu hrabiego Karola Lanckorońskiego, „Tygodnik Powszechny" 44, 29. Oktober 1995.
[65] 5 Briefe von Rainer Maria Rilke an Lanckoroński  aus dem Jahre 1926: Wien, ÖNB, Autogr. 616/21,1-5.
[66] Brief von Hofmannsthal an Lanckoroński, Januar 1903, Universitätsbibliothek Basel, Nachlass Carl J. Burckhardt, Signatur D 83; zit. nach Heumann, Hugo von Hofmannsthal und Karl Lanckoroński, S. 233-234.
[67] Es wurden nur 10 kurze Gedichte unter dem Titel Venezianisches Tagebuch veröffentlicht, Wien 1905.
[68] Ernennung zum Oberstkämmerer, 3. Februar 1914; Wien, ÖNB, Autogr. 615/10-1.
[69] Ernst, Beim Grafen Lanckoronski, S. 2.
[70] Jeroen Bastiaan van Heerde, Staat und Kunst. Staatliche Kunstförderung 1895 bis 1918, Wien - Köln - Weimar 1993, S. 330.
[71] Heerde, Staat und Kunst, S. 33
[72] Jerzy Gadomski, Tadeusz Szydłowski, in: Lech Kalinowski (Hg.), Stulecie Katedry Historii Sztuki Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego (1882-1982) [Hundertjähriges Jubiläum des Lehrstuhls für Kunstgeschichte der Jagiellonen Universität  (1882-1982)], Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego 930, Prace z historii sztuki 19, S. 63.
[73] In der Versammlung am 3. April 1909 sprach er: „Ich werde nach meinen besten Kräften danach trachten, die Ziele des Vereines zu verwirklichen zu helfen [...] und unsere Vereinigung für die Bestrebungen der Denkmalpflege so nutzbringend wie möglich zu gestalten“, in: Mitteilungen der k. k. Zentralkommission für Erforschung und Erhaltung der Kunst- und Historischen Denkmale 8/4, 1909, S. 166.
[74] Tietze, Karl Graf Lanckoroński, S. 114.
[75] Heinrich Swoboda, Zur Lösung der Riesentorfrage. Das Riesentor des Wiener St. Stephansdomes und seine Restaurierung, Wien 1902.
[76] Karol Lanckoroński, Nieco o nowych robotach w katedrze na Wawelu [Einiges über die neuen Arbeiten in der Kathedrale auf dem Wawel], Kraków 1903, S. 9.
[77] „Neue Freie Presse“, 8. Dezember 1907, s. 14; siehe auch:  Peter Haiko, Otto Wagner und das Kaiser Franz Josef-Stadtmuseum: das Scheitern der Moderne in Wien [Ausstellungskatalog, Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien, Tübingen 1988, S. 75.
[78] Max Dvořák, Die Karlsplatzfrage, „Neue Freie Presse”, 21. Dezember 1909, S. 1 ff.; Wilhelm von Weckbecker, Der Museumsbau auf dem Karlsplatz, „Neue Freie Presse”, 20. Januar 1910, S. 1-3.
[79] Karl Lanckoroński, Abhandlungen über die künstlerischen und wissenschaftlichen Institute des Kaiserhauses, Wien, ÖNB, Cod. Ser. n. 14793, S. 6.
[80] Über die Geschichte der Restaurierung des Wawels siehe: Paweł Dettloff, Marcin Fabiański, Andrzej Fischinger, Zamek Królewski na Wawelu. Sto lat odnowy (1905-2005) [Königsschloss auf dem Wawel. Hundert Jahre der Renovierung (1905-2005)], Kraków 2005.
[81] Nach Karolina Lanckorońska ereignete sich dies im Jahre 1908, siehe: W hołdzie Rzeczypospolitej. Dzieła sztuki po Rzewuskich i Lanckorońskich w Polsce [Hommage an Polen. Die Kunstsammlungen der Familien Rzewuski und Lanckoroński in Polen], „Tygodnik Powszechny“ 11, 30. Oktober 1994, S. 8.
[82] Die weiteren Mitglieder des Komitees waren: Andrzej Potocki, Leon Piniński und Marian Sokołowski.
[83]„Gazeta Lwowska” 98/144, 25 Juni 1908, S. 1.
[84] Lanckoroński, Nieco o nowych robotach; Nachdruck in: Krawczyk, Wokół Wawelu, S. 99-103. Zur Diskussion der Ansichten von Lanckoroński vgl. Dorota Kudelska, Karola Lanckorońskiego „Nieco o nowych robotach w katedrze na Wawelu“ [Karl Lanckorońskis „Einiges über die neuen Arbeiten in der Kathedrale auf dem Wawel“] in: Mit – Symbol – Mimesis. Studia z dziejów teorii i historii sztuki dedykowane Profesor Elżbiecie Wolińskiej – Wolszleger  [Mythos – Symbol –  Mimesis. Studien zur Theorie und Geschichte der Kunst, Frau Professor Elżbieta Wolińska-Wolszleger gewidmet], Lublin 2009, S. 249-268.
[85] Lanckoroński, Nieco o nowych robotach, S. 19.
[86] Józef Mehoffer, Glossen über die Kunst. Antwort auf den Brief des Grafem Lanckoroński in Angelegenheit der Restaurierung der Kathedrale auf dem Wawel, „Ver Sacrum“, Wien, 14-15 Juli 1903, S. 245-261.
[87] Anna Zeńczak, Polichromia katedry Wniebowzięcia Matki Boskiej w Płocku 1901-1903 [Die Wandmalereien der Kathedrale Maria Himmelfahrt in Płock 1901-1903] in: Józef Mehoffer. Opus Magnum [Ausstellungskatalog], Kraków 2000, S. 190-191, William Ritter kritisierte Lanckorońskis Einstellung streng: „Es schien, dass Wawel einen so ganzheitlichen und renommierten Dekorationskomplex wie die Freiburger Kathedrale erhielt. Die Arbeiten von Mehoffer wurden jedoch durch einen unerwarteten und ungerechten Eingriff vom Grafen Lanckoroński abgebrochen […] Dieser Streit führte zur Auflösung des Vertrages, dessen Gegenstand die Anfertigung von Glasmalereien für die Kathedrale in Płock war.“; William Ritter, Un peintre polonais – Joseph Mehoffer. Etudes d’art étranger, Paris 1906, zit. nach Adam Radajewski, Józef Mehoffer, Warszawa 1976, S. 90; siehe auch Hans Bisanz, Polscy artyści, S. 47.
[88] „Ver Sacrum“, Wien, 15. Juli 1903, S. 14. Mehoffer wurde von Berta Zuckerkandl unterstützt, siehe: Hat der Mäzen das Veto-Recht? in: Die Kunst 9, 1904; mehr darüber Anna Baranowa, Krytycy wiedeńscy o „Sztuce“ -  Ludwig Hevesi, Hermann Bahr, Berta Zuckerkandl  [Wiener Kritiker über „Sztuka“ - Ludwig Hevesi, Hermann Bahr, Berta Zuckerkandl], in: Anna Baranowa (Hg.), Stulecie Towarzystwa Artystów Polskich „Sztuka“ [Hundertjähriges Jubiläum der Gesellschaft Polnischer Künstler „Sztuka”], (= Ars Vetus et Nova 4), 2001, S. 73-74.
[89] Zbigniew Baran, Itaka Juliana Klaczki, Kraków 1998, S. 98.
[90] K. Goryńska, Karol Lanckoroński. Kartka ze wspomnień osobistych [Karl Lanckoroński. Ein Blatt ihrer persönlichen Erinnerungen], in: „Świat” 30, 29. August 1933, S. 4.
[91] Wysocki, Sprzed pół wieku, S. 249.
[92] Marian Rosco-Bogdanowicz, Wspomnienia [Erinnerungen], Kraków 1959, Bd. II, S. 62, zit. nach Roman Taborski, Karol Lanckoroński – wiedeński mecenas i kolekcjoner sztuki [Karl Lanckoroński – Wiener Mäzen und Kunstsammler], in: Przegląd Humanistyczny 13, 1969, S. 160.
[93] Ferdynand Goetel, Patrząc wstecz. Wspomnienia [Blick zurück. Erinnerungen], Kraków [1998], S. 153.
[94] Wysocki, Sprzed pół wieku, S. 249.
[95] Claudia Mertz-Rychner (Hg.), Carl Jacob Burckhardt an Max Rychner. Briefe 1926-1965, Frankfurt/M 1970, S. 47.
[96] Siegfried Lipiner, Poetische Werke von Adam Mickiewicz, Bd. I: Herr Thaddäus, Leipzig 1882 (2. Ausgabe 1898), Bd. 2: Todtenfeier, Leipzig 1887.
[97] I. Janicki, Mahler alla polacca, „Ruch Muzyczny” 17, 23. August 1993, S. 5.
[98] Im Jahre 1914 wurde in Wien eine Konzertreihe der polnischen Musik unter der Schirmherrschaft von Karl Lanckoroński und Władysław Lubomirski organisiert. Lanckoroński und Lubomirski waren verschwägert. Gattin von Władysław Lubomirski war seit 1890 Elisabeth geb. de Vaux (1866-1940), Tochter der Schwester von Lanckoroński, Elisabeth (1844-1896).
[99] Goetel, Patrząc wstecz, S. 150.
[100] Taborski, Polacy w Wiedniu, S. 149, 175, 187.
[101] B. Szarlitt, Ś. p. Hr. Karol Lanckoroński (Wspomnienie pośmiertne) [In memoriam Graf Karl Lanckoroński (Erinnerungen nach seinem Tod)], in: „Kurier Warszawski” 196, 18. Juli 1933, S. 9.
[102] Stanisław Fałat, Wspomnienia z dawnego Wiednia [Erinnerungen aus dem alten Wien], Wien 1921, S. 54.
[103] Karolina Lanckorońska, Rada Regencyjna [Der Regentschaftsrat] in: Kultura. Zeszyty Historyczne 113, Paryż 1995.
[104] Karolina Lanckorońska, Franciszek Józef I – epizody [Franz Joseph I – Episoden], „Tygodnik Powszechny” 44, 29. Oktober 1995; Nachdruck in: Lanckorońska, Szkice wspomnień, S. 60.
[105] Goetel, Patrząc wstecz, S.153.
[106] Johannes Wilde, Der letzte Humanist, „Neues Wiener Tagblatt“ 196, 18. Juli 1933, S. 1; Curtius, Deutsche und antike Welt. S. 292.
[107] Ernst, Beim Grafen Lanckoronski, S. 2-3.


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